What Are Natural Systems, Actually?

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Alan Rayner


To this day, the applicability of abstract, definitive logic and mathematics to natural systems is rarely challenged or even questioned. Consequently we find ourselves predominantly living, working and researching in a way that contradicts how we naturally are in the world as it naturally is. This seems unwise, to put it mildly. In such circumstances can it be any surprise when we are drawn into needless conflict and misunderstanding, unable to work out what it means to live in an ecologically sustainable way, and prone to inflict profound psychological, social and environmental harm on ourselves and our natural neighbourhood? A way out from this predicament is offered by what has been called ‘natural inclusionality’, which has the potential radically to transform human understanding of natural systems and our place within them.


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Rayner, A. (2012). What Are Natural Systems, Actually?. Advances in Systems Science and Applications, 12(4), 327-346. Retrieved from https://ijassa.ipu.ru/index.php/ijassa/article/view/116