Advances in Systems Science and Applications <p><strong><em>Advances in Systems Science and Applications </em></strong><strong>(<em>ASSA</em>) </strong>is an international peer-reviewed open-source online academic journal. Its&nbsp;scope covers all major aspects of systems (and processes) analysis, modeling, simulation, and control, ranging from theoretical and methodological developments to a large variety of application areas. Survey articles and innovative results are also welcome.</p> <p>ASSA is aimed at the audience of scientists, engineers and researchers working in the framework of these problems. ASSA should be a platform on which researchers will be able to communicate and discuss both their specialized issues and interdisciplinary problems of systems analysis and its applications in science and industry, including data science, artificial intelligence, material science, manufacturing, transportation, power and energy, ecology, corporate management, public&nbsp;governance, finance, and many others.</p> en-US (Natalya Pavlova) (Alla Shinkaryuk, Technical Editor) Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Modeling the Detection of Moving Objects by Means of a Spatially Distributed Continuous Monitoring System with a Dynamic Structure <p>The class of monitoring systems, which is equipped with mobile means of detection, is considered. Unmanned aerial vehicles are used as detection means. The area of responsibility of the system is a geographic space with counteraction for both detection equipment and objects of observation. An original approach to the development of a simulation model for detecting moving objects of observation in the area of a spatially distributed continuous monitoring system with a structure is proposed. The movement of sensors is displayed along trajectories, which are Hamiltonian cycles on the terrain graph. The new approach is to use the approach used to ensure the flexibility of the resulting solutions to the problem of monitoring space and the ability to respond quickly to various factors and other conditions of use based on self-organizing mechanisms. At the same time, both the system itself, designed to solve the tasks of continuous monitoring and the solutions found for specific monitoring tasks and spatially distributed systems, provide continuous monitoring and are resistant to destructive influences of various kinds.</p> <p>The constructed simulation model and the experiments performed using the principles of dynamic detection of detection means in the area of a spatially distributed continuous monitoring system. At each moment of time, the optimal configuration of the parameters is determined, which is used as the most effective solution of the problem from the point of time of detecting an object in the monitoring area of vision. The model does not depend on the type of sensors used in the network and the implementation of the ideological principles embodied in the concept of dynamic systems. Based on the results of the experiments carried out, conclusions are drawn about the characteristics of continuous monitoring, which provides a basis for further work to optimize these indicators.</p> Vladimir I. Goncharenko, Azret A. Kochkarov, Danil V. Yatskin, Boris V. Rumiantsev ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of Reliability for Information System for Natural Gas Quality Analysis <p>It is an extremely crucial task for oil and gas industry to assess how reliable gas quality analyzing systems are. The traditional approaches to assess the reliability of this class of systems, due to a number of conditions, do not seem to be applicable. To assess the reliability of such systems, we propose a probabilistic method to determine a distribution function of operating time, a reliability function, and mean time to failure. We build a structural diagram of the system, obtain basic formulae to determine the required functions and reliability indicators. We investigate various scenarios of system failure depending on the number of parameters for which accuracy decreases. For each of the scenarios, we obtain formulae to describe the required functions and reliability indicators.</p> Ivan Brokarev, Sergei Vaskovskii ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Information Spreading and Evolution of Non-Homogeneous Networks <p>Information spreading among nodes of directed random networks by means of the linear preferential attachment (PA) schemes and the well-known SPREAD algorithm is considered. The novelty of the paper is that schemes of the linear preferential attachment proposed in Wan et al. (2020) for the network evolution are also used here for the information spreading. The SPREAD algorithm proposed for undirected random graphs is adapted to directed graphs. Moreover, we deal with non-homogeneous directed networks consisting of nodes whose in- and out-degrees have different power law distributions that is realistic for practice and we find communities in a network that spread the information faster. We compare the minimum number of evolution steps $K^*$ required for the preferential attachment schemes and the well-known algorithm SPREAD to spread a message among a fixed number of nodes. The evolution of the network in time starts from a seed set of nodes. We study the impact of the seed network and parameters of the preferential attachment on $K^*$ for simulated graphs. Real temporal graphs are also investigated in the same way. The PA may be a better spreader than the SPREAD algorithm. This is valid for the sets of the PA parameters with dominating proportions of created new edges from existing nodes to newly appending ones or between the existing nodes only. It is shown both for simulated and real graphs that the communities with the smallest tail indices of the out-degrees and PageRanks may spread the message faster than other communities.</p> Natalia M. Markovich, Maksim S. Ryzhov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Improvement of the Traffic Control on Complex Crossroads via Sending Randomized Recommendations to Drivers <p>The efficient use of signalized crossroads, especially intersections of multi-lane highways playing a great role in the urban traffic, demands not only the adequate control by traffic lights regulation but rational adaptation of the drivers’ totality to current traffic organization and control as well. The latter results from their complex structure and traffic organization on them when some lanes within an intersection split and/or merge with the other ones and their passage is regulated individually. Besides, changes of lane counts on entrance and exit roads is typical. The lack of visible indicators helping drivers in their error-free rational lane choice may be overcome by the traffic control system endowed with the function of the advice-tick system for the drivers’ totality. The proposed way to elaborate proper recommendations is based on calculation of the optimal distribution of vehicles between possible routes according to the current intensity of entering traffic flows in all passage directions obtained from the monitoring data. To approach this ideal distribution it is proposed to send impersonal recommendations to drivers of approaching vehicles depending on their desired passage directions; these recommendations must randomly change in time according to the determined distribution since some admissible directions must be splitted between certain routes in the calculated proportion. The proposed control method can significantly reduce improper lane choice by drivers, including their principal errors not allowing them to reach the needed road and so increase the intersection capacity utilization and reduce traffic delays.</p> Andrey M. Valuev ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Graph Methods for Improving the Non-Optimal Solution of the Locomotive Assignment Problem under Time Constraints <p>Finding the optimal assignment of locomotives to fulfill freight train transportation schedule under time constraints is a complex problem, even on a linear section of the railway. In previous studies, a graph model was proposed that allows solving the assignment problem using a static graph algorithm. It was proved that finding the optimal assignment without constraints is equivalent to finding the minimal path cover of a specific acyclic graph. However, due to time constraints, the optimal solution may not be valid. This paper presents methods for modifying the found solution in order for it to satisfy the time constraints on locomotives. Two operations on path in the minimal path cover of a graph are introduced: crossover and changeover. They allow to rebuild the found solution without spoiling the admissible sequences of transportation, while the invalid ones are corrected.</p> Liudmila Zhilyakova, Vasily Koreshkov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mathematical Model of the Infection Spread in Transport Based on the Theory of Porous Medium <p>Mathematical model of the spread of a virus in trains which considers transmission of infection from two types of sick passengers (clearly infected and latently infected) was built and named SEI (Susceptible-Exposed-Infected) model. Ventilation and movements of the passengers inside the train are considered through the porous medium equation. An algorithm for filling empty seats in the train is developed. A route of ten hours duration with two stop stations was simulated. The results of numerical calculations allow to conclude that asymptomatic infected passengers are the most dangerous group in the spread of infection.</p> Alexandra Ocheretyanaya, Alexander Bratus ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Accelerating Sequential Quadratic Programming for Inequality-Constrained Optimization near Critical Lagrange Multipliers <p>We consider a sequential quadratic programming algorithm for optimization problems with equality and inequality constraints, equipped with the standard Armijo linesearch procedure for a nonsmooth exact penalty function, intended for globalization of convergence. We are interested in the case when the standard assumptions for local superlinear convergence of the method may not hold. Specifically, we allow for violation of standard constraint qualifications and second-order sufficient optimality conditions, in which case attraction to so-called critical Lagrange multipliers is known to have a negative impact on convergence rate. In these circumstances, some known acceleration techniques can be expected to take effect only provided the true Hessian and the full SQP step are asymptotically accepted, and these are the main issues addressed in this work. The presented constructions extend some previously known ones to the case when inequality constraints are involved.</p> Alexey F. Izmailov, Ivan S. Rodin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Environmental Assessment of Water Treatment Plants of the Republic of Ecuador and Comparative Analysis of Water Disinfection Technologies using the LCA Method <p>In the study, the environmental sustainability of two small water treatment plants with water intake from surface water sources with a high content of organic substances was evaluated. The life cycle assessment was used as a tool to compare two scenarios developed to solve the problem of disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation in drinking water. Various stages of the obtaining drinking water process were evaluated – from flocculation-coagulation to disinfection. The functional unit was defined as 1 m<sup>3</sup> of drinking water produced at a water treatment plant. The proposed scenarios were developed to replace the chlorine disinfection with the UV disinfection of varying intensity (30 mJ/cm<sup>2</sup> for the first scenario and 186 mJ/cm<sup>2</sup> for the second scenario), followed by chloroamination. The data were analyzed using the Ecoinvent v.3.01 database, modeled and processed in the OpenLCA software. The results showed that at both water treatment plants, the coagulation-flocculation process has the greatest impact on the environment, which is mainly due to the chemical nature of the coagulant. It was revealed that from the point of view of environmental impact, the UV disinfection with an intensity of 30 mJ/cm<sup>2</sup> is preferable, since the global warming potential (GWP) was 80% less than in the second scenario, while the acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential (MAEP), terrestrial ecotoxicity potential (TETP) and human toxicity potential (HTP) were less by 78%, 71%, 72%, 74% and 79%, respectively.</p> Cristian Salazar, Anna I. Kurbatova, Milana E. Kupriyanova, Kseniya Yu. Mikhaylichenko, Elena V. Savenkova, Alena N. Basamykina ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Neural Network Models and Cognitive Computing from Social Media Data: Perception of Situation <p>The paper presents the development of various types of models using cognitive computing based on speech data of social media actors to reveal the presence/absence of social tension in the areas where urban development projects are being implemented, as illustrated by the construction of the Nizhegorodskaya transport interchange hub in Moscow (Russia). The empirical base of the study was data from social networks, microblogs, blogs, instant messengers, video hosting sites, forums, Internet media, subject-related portals and reviews on the project implementation. The research was carried out using a transdisciplinary approach, including semantic analysis, neural network technologies and mathematical modeling methods. The study showed the consistency of the results obtained during the application of various types of models. Semantic analysis of content using neural network technologies showed a neutral perception of the project by residents, the absence of social stress in the construction areas. The results of the analysis performed with autoregressive models confirmed the results obtained.</p> Nailia Gabdrakhmanova, Maria Pilgun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Optimal Control Approach in Problems of the Income Distribution into Consumed and Invested Parts <p>In this paper, we investigate dynamic problems of the income distribution into consumed and invested parts using optimal control methods. Here it is assumed that the basic economic identity holds true, i.e., the income is the sum of the consumption and the investment. The income is understood either in the pure form or the gross domestic product, or the national income. The consumption is also understood in different ways: in its pure form or the aggregate consumption. We start with the analysis of the Harrod–Domar macromodel with the capital intensity of the income growth depending on the continuous time. In particular, it is shown that the balance equation for accumulated household savings also satisfies the basic economic identity and the capital intensity of the income growth can depend on time. Since households are the best savers and they demonstrate the best survival, we modify the considered macromodels replacing the given production functions with the problem of maximizing the integral discounted utility of the consumption. In this case, the utility function satisfies the Arrow–Pratt condition of the relative risk aversion.</p> Alexander P. Chernyaev ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000